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One of the most striking features of the Grampians is its rich and colourful spring wildflower display, best seen during October. Heathlands come to life with colourful shows of Grampians Boronia, Blue Pin-cushion Lily, Grampians Parrot-pea, Grampians Thryptomene and a multitude of other herbs and shrubs.
The park contains over 800 indigenous plant species. Over 40 of these, including the Grampians Gum and Grampians Parrot-pea, are found nowhere else in the world.
Plant communities range from luxuriant fern gullies, to Stringybark forests and Red Gum woodlands in the Victoria Valley, to stunted heaths on the Major Mitchell Plateau.
There are eight broad vegetation communities within the park:
- Sclerophyll Forest
- Shrubby Woodlands
- Savannah Woodlands
- Heath Woodland
- Riparian vegetation.
Fire plays a major role in the ecology of the Grampians' vegetation and fauna.
The park has an abundance of bird species. The low open shrubby woodlands in the park support many nectar-feeding birds, and the tall open forests are important for hollow-dependent species such as the Powerful Owl. Large populations of Emus are found throughout the lowland areas.
Over 40 species of mammal have been recorded in the park. They include kangaroos, possums, gliders, echidnas and koalas. The park also supports populations of Red-necked Wallabies and Grey Kangaroos and a growing population of Black Wallabies.