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There are about 520 species of plants native to the park. They occur in distinct communities which can all be seen close to the campgrounds.
River Red Gum and Black Box woodlands cover the floodplains of Outlet Creek and the lakes. Cypress-pine woodlands grow on dunes near the lakes, but the large areas once covered by the pines have been decimated by bushfires and rabbits which eat the pine seedlings.
Mallee eucalypts cover most of the eastern section of the park, with rolling sand plains covered with heathland in the western section.
Spring is the best time to see wildflowers. Displays are at their best in wet years.
Animals living in the mallee are adapted to an arid, sandy habitat with a pattern of irregular rainfall. Mitchell's Hopping Mouse and the Desert Silky Mouse live here, together with a large variety of reptiles such as the sand goanna, dragons, skinks and geckos. Snakes are rarely seen at Wyperfeld.
Emus and western grey kangaroos are plentiful and can usually be seen grazing on the dry lake beds and surrounding woodlands at dawn and dusk.
More than 200 bird species have been recorded, including Sulphur Crested Cockatoos, Mallee Ringneck Parrots, Red-rumped parrots, galahs, eagles and smaller birds such as variegated Fairy-wrens and Red-capped robins. Of particular interest is the Mallee Fowl. This rare bird incubates its eggs in a large mound of earth and leaf litter.