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The park protects a diverse array of vegetation types and plant species. Over 550 native species occur; the most significant vegetation communities are the alpine and sub-alpine communities.

Massive bluffs and near vertical granite rock faces soar a thousand metres above the Ovens River valley and are typified by ridges heavily forested with Alpine Ash and Snow Gum.

At the highest points trees become sparse, and extensive granite outcrops are linked by expanses of sub-alpine grasslands and herbfields spotted with patches of stunted Snow Gum.

Buffalo Sallee, an endemic eucalypt found only in the park, occurs predominantly around the edges of the plateau.

The foothills below consist of undulating dissected terrain with valleys and low hills clothed mainly with peppermints and gums.


There is a variety of fauna habitats in the park due to the range in altitude.

The foothill forests contain kangaroos, wallabies, and several species of possums and gliders.

Smaller mammals such as native rats and mice inhabit the plateau. Wombats occur in all habitats.

The Alpine Silver Xenica is a species of butterfly found only on the plateau of Mount Buffalo.

Bogong Moths shelter in rock crevices at the Horn and it is common to see birds darting in and out of the cracks to feed on them.

Peregrine Falcons sometimes nest in the granite rock faces. Crimson Rosellas are abundant throughout the park.